Leading UX in Bangladesh

Health Misinformation on Social Media in Bangladesh: Public Health Impact and Mitigation Strategies

Nusrat Jahan Labonno, Wahid bin Ahsan 

Department of Human-Centered Design


The proliferation of health misinformation on social media presents a significant threat to public health in Bangladesh. This study explores how the general population engages with health-related content on social media, identifies the causes and impacts of misinformation, and offers strategies to mitigate these issues. Employing a mixed-methods approach, the research integrates qualitative interviews with 30 participants and quantitative surveys with 150 respondents. Key findings reveal a prevalent reliance on unverified health information, leading to potential health risks. The study emphasizes the need for adherence to authentic medical advice and suggests a coordinated effort involving healthcare professionals and government initiatives. Recommendations include enhancing digital literacy, implementing robust fact-checking mechanisms, and promoting credible health information sources to effectively combat misinformation.

Keywords: health misinformation, digital health communication, public health risk, social media influence, health literacy, fact-checking, Bangladesh.


Advancements in communication technology have led to a rise in health misinformation, which is often more widely accepted than factual information. The internet has emerged as a widely utilized tool for acquiring knowledge about health and conducting personal research on health conditions, making it a double-edged sword where vast amounts of false information can easily mislead people (Wang et al., 2019). In Bangladesh, a country undergoing rapid digitalization and experiencing a boom in social media use, misinformation poses significant challenges. This study aims to determine the prevalence of health misinformation themes on social media platforms, understand how health seekers consume misinformation, and assess its impact. Emphasis is placed on the quality of methodologies used in studies and the variety of solutions applied to address this public health risk.


The phenomenon of misinformation has been extensively studied in social science, particularly in politics and mass media. Recently, health misinformation on social media has attracted increased attention due to its prevalence and potential harm (Li et al., 2022). Although health misinformation is not a new concept, the internet has amplified its reach and impact. Historically, individuals have acquired health information from sources outside formal healthcare systems, as evidenced by Listerine’s misleading advertising from 1921 to 1974, which prompted corrective action by the Federal Trade Commission (Swire-Thompson & Lazer, 2020). Understanding the internet’s role in health information consumption and consumers’ ability to assess its accuracy is crucial.

Bangladesh has witnessed several instances of mob lynching and hate crimes fueled by false and deceptive information on social media platforms (Haque et al., 2020a). Despite the large number of internet users, a significant portion of the population lacks sufficient digital literacy (Z. Hossain et al., 2021). During the COVID-19 pandemic, internet users in Bangladesh, like those in many other South Asian countries, increasingly sought health-related information online (I. Hossain, 2023). The study of health misinformation on social media in Bangladesh is fragmented due to differing viewpoints and disciplinary backgrounds. Given its significance, organizing the existing information in the Bangladeshi context is essential for providing guidance and developing effective strategies.

Literature Review

This review summarizes disinformation research, examining its characteristics and general perceptions internationally and in Bangladesh.

Misinformation and Public Health

Misinformation, encompassing twisted, incorrect, or inaccurate information, contaminates the information ecosystem. Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter lack gatekeepers, allowing misinformation to spread rapidly (Li et al., 2022). Individuals often share first-hand treatment experiences on social media to aid friends and contribute to society (Nabity-Grover et al., 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has been termed an “infodemic” by the WHO due to widespread health misinformation (World Health Organization, 2020).

Studies highlight significant impacts in Bangladesh. Villagers in rural Bangladeshi villages relied on local beliefs to fact-check information, leading to the spread of unreliable cures (Sultana & Fussell, 2021). Digital inequalities and sociocultural factors contributed to misinformation during COVID-19, stressing the need for digital inclusion and public health education (Aziz et al., 2020).

The Echo Chamber of Social Media

Network effects increase social media engagement, spreading information faster than traditional media. Social media users often adopt a hedonic mindset, reducing verification of information and reinforcing confirmation bias (Muhammed T & Mathew, 2022). A study revealed that 33% of cancer-related posts on social media contained false information, and 76.9% contained harmful content (Johnson et al., 2022).

Popularity-based and network-based recommender algorithms significantly contribute to misinformation diffusion, with super-spreaders having a major impact on algorithmic performance (Pathak et al., 2023).

The Impact of Online Misinformation on Individuals’ Health

False health information endangers public well-being, impairs evidence-based medicine, damages doctor-patient bonds, and increases the risk of complications (Johnson et al., 2022). During the pandemic in Bangladesh, misinformation about COVID-19 treatments, like “Hot water mixed with salt-vinegar can cure corona infection,” proliferated (Al-Zaman, 2021b).

People use misinformation to confirm existing beliefs and protect their identities (Savolainen, 2022). Health-related anxiety and repeated exposure increase the acceptance of health misinformation (Pan et al., 2021).

Spread of Health Misinformation in Bangladesh

Bangladesh experiences adverse effects from misinformation (Haque et al., 2020b). Vaccine-related misinformation generated high user interaction on Facebook, increasing vaccine concerns (Al-Zaman, 2021a). This hinders healthcare services and creates public anxiety.

Older citizens face challenges accessing accurate health information, often suffering from non-communicable diseases (Sarker et al., 2023). Elderly rural residents are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 due to misconceptions (Islam et al., 2020).

Improved media literacy and collaborative mitigation strategies are needed to address the negative impacts of misinformation on public health perceptions and services (Ehsan & bin Ahsan, 2024).

Fact-Checking Health Information on Social Media

Effective fact-checking strategies are essential. News literacy and trust influence users’ intent to fact-check (Kožuh & Čakš, 2023). Social media campaigns for correcting misinformation are effective (Bode & Vraga, 2018). Automated solutions can assist in discerning genuine health information (Di Sotto & Viviani, 2022).

Addressing health misinformation in Bangladesh requires improved digital literacy, algorithmic adjustments, and effective fact-checking. Targeted strategies and collaborative efforts are crucial to combat misinformation and enhance public health outcomes (Ehsan & bin Ahsan, 2024).


Research Design

This research employs a mixed-methods approach to gain a deeper understanding of the factors contributing to health misinformation on social media in Bangladesh, as well as the causes, impacts, and challenges. The study evaluates the perspectives of the general public from different disciplines, medical professionals, and academic instructors, analyzing their engagement with health-related content on social media platforms through qualitative and quantitative research.

Research Questions

The central research question for this study is: What are the various impacts and characteristics of health misinformation on social media in Bangladesh? How can we develop strategies to mitigate negative impacts while enhancing positive public health communication?

Six sub-questions were created to guide the investigation:

  1. What perceived trends in health topics are associated with misinformation on social media in Bangladesh?
  2. How do users in Bangladesh interact with health information on social media and what methods do they use to assess its credibility?
  3. How does the perception and impact of health misinformation vary within different demographic groups in Bangladesh, considering factors such as age, education level, and urban vs. rural residency?
  4. What diverse roles do healthcare professionals and social media influencers play in shaping public perceptions of health information in Bangladesh?
  5. What correlations exist between exposure to health misinformation on social media and health-related behaviors in Bangladesh?
  6. What potential interventions could be explored to combat health misinformation on social media in Bangladesh, and how can their effectiveness be assessed in a culturally sensitive manner?


We selected 30 individuals who participated in semi-structured interviews as part of this qualitative research. The primary group includes 26 participants from various age groups (18–45) and various occupational backgrounds (students, job holders, freelancers, teachers, and housewives). We thoughtfully incorporated 2 healthcare professionals, 1 journalist, and 1 instructor for expert recommendations. Our goal is to reduce bias by providing an accurate representation of the population using a random sampling method. Additionally, the study engaged 150 social media users for the quantitative survey.

Data Collection

For qualitative data collection, we conducted interview sessions using a set of seven open-ended, semi-structured questions to capture a broad range of participants’ experiences and perceptions. The participants consented to audio recordings of these interviews, which were subsequently transcribed. For the quantitative survey, we used Google Forms, which included 14 questions.

Data Analysis

After transcribing the interviews, we utilized the ATLAS.ti software to carry out a qualitative content analysis. We began with coding to classify the relevant information and then identified essential themes. The next phase involved synthesizing these themes to provide comprehensive interpretations of the study topics. To enhance the reliability and trustworthiness of the study’s results, we applied a rigorous method for the analysis.

Ethical Considerations

We adhered to the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association (2017), prioritizing the anonymity and confidentiality of participants. All participants gave informed consent before the interviews. The researchers informed the participants about the study’s objectives, their role, and the measures taken to protect their confidentiality and anonymity.


Qualitative Study

The qualitative interviews revealed key insights into the use of social media and the spread of health misinformation in Bangladesh.

Social Media Usage and Information Seeking

Participants frequently use social media for obtaining information, with Facebook being particularly popular. Health-conscious individuals often seek out health-related information on these platforms, looking for content related to dietary habits, digestive concerns, and disease treatment. Despite the popularity, concerns about credibility persist, influencing how actively users seek and trust this information.

Influencing Factors and Trust Issues

Several factors drive the acceptance of health-related content on social media:

  • Informative Content: Many users trust informative medical content found on social media.
  • Supplementary Information: Confusion after consulting specialists often leads users to seek additional online information.
  • Cost and Convenience: Limited understanding of medical concepts and the desire to save on medical expenses drive users to search for quick information online.

However, social media is also a significant source of health misinformation, including incorrect treatments and anti-vaccine movements. Participants reported encountering fraudulent pages and fake specialists, raising concerns about the credibility of the information available.

Consequences and Verification of Health Information

Health misinformation can have severe consequences, such as delayed necessary treatments, leading to critical health conditions. Participants emphasized the importance of verifying health information through multiple sources, including verified medical professionals. Suggestions included using alternative search engines and following verified doctors’ pages for reliable health content.

Positive Aspects and Professional Contributions

Despite the risks, social media can raise medical awareness and provide valuable information during health crises like COVID-19. Participants noted the role of social media in offering useful health tips and increasing focus on mental health. Many doctors are now creating content on social media to provide health advice and offer verified information. Participants suggested that more medical professionals engage on social media to combat health misconceptions and build a strong online community for authentic health information.

Raising Awareness and Mitigation Strategies

Raising public awareness is crucial for reducing health misinformation. Participants suggested promoting digital literacy and implementing public campaigns to educate people about the consequences of health misinformation. They also recommended regulatory measures to control the spread of misinformation.

Quantitative Study

High Social Media Usage

A significant majority of the respondents (90.7%) use social media daily, indicating that social media is a primary source of information for most people. This high usage underscores the importance of understanding how health information is disseminated on these platforms.

Table 1: Use of Social Media in Daily Life
Table 1: This table shows the percentage of respondents who use social media in their daily lives.

Predominance of Facebook

Facebook is the most popular social media platform among the respondents, with 54% identifying it as their most used platform. Instagram follows with 21.3%, and YouTube is used by 17.3% of the respondents. This highlights where health misinformation is most likely to spread.

Chart 1: Most Used Social Media Platforms

Bar chart depicting the most used social media platforms. The platforms and their corresponding usage percentages are Facebook (54%), Instagram (21.3%), YouTube (17.3%), Twitter (6%), and TikTok (1.4%).
Chart 1: This chart highlights the most frequently used social media platforms among respondents

Diverse News Consumption

Respondents consume a variety of news types on social media, with 44.7% reading all types of news. Health and medical-related news are read by 13.3% of the respondents, indicating a substantial interest in health information.

Table 3: Types of News Read on Social Media
News TypeCountPercentage
Health and Medical Related2013.3%
International Related2013.3%
Political Related138.7%
Economy Related128%
Fashion Related1711.3%
All Types6744.7%
Table 2: This table shows the types of news and information that respondents usually read on social media.

Following Health Advice

A majority of respondents (78%) follow health advice or recommendations found on social media, and 60.7% implement these tips in real life. However, the frequency of following health tips varies, with only 18% doing so regularly and 58% following sometimes.

Chart 2: Frequency of Following and Implementing Health Advice from Social Media
Bar chart showing the frequency of following and implementing health advice from social media. It displays four categories: Follow Health Advice (Yes: 78%, No: 22%), Implement Health Tips (Yes: 60.7%, No: 39.3%), Follow Regularly (Yes: 18%, No: 0%), and Follow Sometimes (Yes: 58%, No: 0%).
Chart 2: This chart highlights the percentage of respondents who implement health tips or recommendations found on social media.

Trust Issues

Trust in health-related content on social media is mixed. Only 22% of the respondents find the content trustworthy, while 36% do not, and 42% are unsure. This skepticism is reflected in the fact that 46% of respondents do not verify the authenticity of the health information they find.

Table 3: Trustworthiness of Health Content on Social Media
I Don’t Know6342%
Table 3: This table shows respondents’ perceptions of the trustworthiness of health-related content on social media.

Sharing Health Information

Most respondents (42.7%) never share health information on their profiles, and only 16.7% share such information very often. This suggests a cautious approach to spreading health-related content among users.

Table 4: Sharing Health Information on Social Media
Yes, very often2516.7%
Table 4: This table shows the frequency with which respondents share health-related information on social media.

Perceived Effectiveness and Preference for Expert Advice

The perceived effectiveness of health information from social media is divided, with 45.3% finding it effective, 29.3% not finding it effective, and 25.3% unsure. Despite this, a significant majority (71.3%) prefer advice from medical experts over social media, indicating a higher trust in professional medical guidance.

Chart 4: Perceived Effectiveness of Health Content on Social Media and Preference for Expert Advice

Bar chart illustrating the perceived effectiveness of health content on social media and preference for expert advice. It shows three categories for perceived effectiveness (Yes: 45.3%, No: 29.3%, I Don't Know: 25.3%) and preference for expert advice (Yes: 28.7%, No: 71.3%, I Don't Know: 0%).
Chart 3: This chart illustrates the perceived effectiveness of health content found on social media and the respondents’ preference for expert advice over social media content.


This study highlights the significant causes, effects, and consequences of health misinformation spread on social media in Bangladesh. The findings reveal a critical need for accurate health information and the substantial influence of social media on public health perceptions.

Our findings indicate that health misinformation is prevalent on social media platforms, with the majority of misinformation spreaders lacking institutional connections or medical expertise. The quantitative data reveals that 60.7% of respondents have applied health tips from social media, indicating a high level of influence and underscoring the importance of consuming information from credible sources to prevent potential harm . This aligns with the literature, which emphasizes the dangers of health misinformation and its impact on public health (Swire-Thompson & Lazer, 2020).

Misinformation has significant impacts on individuals and society, including economic and health losses. During crises, people tend to trust unverified information due to social, cognitive, and political factors (Muhammed T & Mathew, 2022). Our study corroborates this by showing that 38% of respondents were unsure about the trustworthiness of health-related content on social media, indicating widespread uncertainty and potential vulnerability to misinformation.

Medical experts play a vital role in combating health misinformation. Raising public awareness about misinformation is crucial. Collaborations between fact-checkers, healthcare professionals, and faith-based institutions, along with government efforts to improve press freedom, are recommended to support unbiased fact-checking and prevent misinformation (Haque et al., 2020b). Our study also found that 54% of respondents verify the authenticity of health information found on social media through other search engines or from expert doctors, suggesting a proactive approach among a significant portion of the population.

Strategies for Combating Misinformation

Based on our findings and the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh, several strategies can be implemented to combat health misinformation effectively:

  • Digital Literacy Education: Educating consumers to identify fake news is crucial (Anthonysamy & Sivakumar, 2022; Dame Adjin-Tettey, 2022). Tailored digital literacy programs are needed in Bangladesh to reach diverse demographic and socio-cultural backgrounds.
  • Collaboration with Physicians: Health professionals should create engaging and authentic content to combat misinformation (Mohamed & Shoufan, 2024; Swire-Thompson & Lazer, 2020). Our study found that many respondents follow health advice from verified doctors’ pages, indicating the potential impact of credible medical content.
  • Fact-Checking Integration: Supporting independent fact-checking organizations is essential (Porter & Wood, 2021). Given that 42.7% of respondents sometimes share health information on social media, integrating fact-checking mechanisms can help mitigate the spread of misinformation.
  • Policy and Regulation: Regulatory frameworks similar to those in European nations can help counteract disinformation (BALI & DESAI, 2019). Government efforts to improve press freedom and access to information can aid unbiased fact-checking and prevent misinformation.
  • Public Awareness Campaigns: Targeted initiatives to encourage verification of news before sharing are vital (Apuke et al., 2023; Sundstrom et al., 2021). Our findings suggest that public awareness campaigns can stimulate cautious behavior on social media, as evidenced by the 45.3% of respondents who believe health tips from social media are helpful.

To address health misinformation, it requires a multifaceted approach that includes digital literacy education, collaboration with healthcare professionals, robust fact-checking mechanisms, supportive regulatory policies, and comprehensive public awareness campaigns. By implementing these strategies, we can mitigate the adverse impacts of health misinformation and improve public health outcomes in Bangladesh.


This study explored the prevalence and impact of health misinformation on social media in Bangladesh, focusing on user behaviors and perceptions. Our findings from both qualitative and quantitative data reveal significant challenges posed by the spread of health misinformation, including its effects on public health and trust in information sources.

Social media, particularly Facebook, has become a primary source of health information for many in Bangladesh. However, the widespread nature of misinformation on these platforms poses serious risks, as a significant percentage of respondents follow and implement unverified health tips from social media.

Key insights highlight the urgent need to improve digital literacy, promote credible health content from medical professionals, and implement robust fact-checking mechanisms. These measures are crucial to addressing the misinformation problem and ensuring access to reliable health information.

Our study underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach involving education, collaboration, regulation, and public awareness. Enhancing digital literacy, supporting fact-checking organizations, and fostering a culture of critical evaluation of online health content are essential to mitigate the adverse impacts of misinformation and promote better health outcomes.

In conclusion, combating health misinformation requires collective efforts from government agencies, healthcare professionals, social media platforms, and the public. Through targeted interventions and continuous education, we can build a more informed and resilient society capable of making informed health decisions in the digital age.

Limitations and Future Research

This study has several limitations. The sample size was limited and focused primarily on urban populations, which may not fully represent the experiences of rural communities. Reliance on self-reported data may introduce bias as participants might inaccurately recall or misrepresent their behaviors and perceptions. The study’s cross-sectional design captures a single point in time, not accounting for changes over time. Additionally, the focus on popular platforms like Facebook may overlook the influence of other social media platforms.

Future research should prioritize expanding the sample to include participants from both rural and urban areas, as well as officials at various governance levels, to gain a more comprehensive understanding. Engaging more healthcare professionals from diverse backgrounds can help capture a wider range of industry perceptions. Conducting a thorough investigation of the impacts of various social media platforms on misinformation, including their features, regulatory frameworks, and algorithms, will provide deeper insights. Finally, studying existing policies in-depth to gain insights into effective misinformation prevention strategies, including strict enforcement of laws against spreading rumors, is essential.

By addressing these limitations and expanding future research, we can develop more effective strategies to combat health misinformation and improve public health outcomes.


We are extremely grateful to Userhub for the opportunity to conduct this study within their HCD program. This research builds on the approaches and frameworks we acquired during the course. The study would not have been possible without their constant encouragement and guidance.

We extend our sincere gratitude to the individuals who participated in this study, as well as the medical experts and academic professionals who contributed their time and expertise, which were crucial in the development of this research.

Finally, we acknowledge our peers and mentors for their continuous support and valuable feedback, which greatly enhanced this study.


Al-Zaman, Md. S. (2021a). An exploratory study of social media users’ engagement with COVID-19 vaccine-related content. F1000Research, 10, 236. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.51210.3

Al-Zaman, Md. S. (2021b). COVID-19-related online misinformation in Bangladesh. Journal of Health Research, 35(4), 364–368. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHR-09-2020-0414

Anthonysamy, L., & Sivakumar, P. (2022). A New Digital Literacy Framework to Mitigate Misinformation in Social Media Infodemic. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4174829

Apuke, O. D., Omar, B., & Tunca, E. A. (2023). Effect of Fake News Awareness as an Intervention Strategy for Motivating News Verification Behaviour Among Social Media Users in Nigeria: A Quasi-Experimental Research. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 58(6), 888–903. https://doi.org/10.1177/00219096221079320

Aziz, A., Islam, M. M., & Zakaria, M. (2020). COVID-19 exposes digital divide, social stigma, and information crisis in Bangladesh. Media Asia, 47(3–4), 144–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/01296612.2020.1843219

BALI, A., & DESAI, P. (2019). Fake News and Social Media: Indian Perspective. Media Watch, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.15655/mw/2019/v10i3/49687

Bode, L., & Vraga, E. K. (2018). See Something, Say Something: Correction of Global Health Misinformation on Social Media. Health Communication, 33(9), 1131–1140. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1331312

Dame Adjin-Tettey, T. (2022). Combating fake news, disinformation, and misinformation: Experimental evidence for media literacy education. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311983.2022.2037229

Di Sotto, S., & Viviani, M. (2022). Health Misinformation Detection in the Social Web: An Overview and a Data Science Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042173

Ehsan, A. M., & bin Ahsan, W. (2024). Unraveling Misinformation in Bangladesh: Perceptions, Impacts, and Strategies for Mitigation. https://doi.org/10.58947/PBSY-TGJR

Haque, M. M., Yousuf, M., Alam, A. S., Saha, P., Ahmed, S. I., & Hassan, N. (2020a). Combating Misinformation in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 4(CSCW2), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1145/3415201

Haque, M. M., Yousuf, M., Alam, A. S., Saha, P., Ahmed, S. I., & Hassan, N. (2020b). Combating Misinformation in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 4(CSCW2), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1145/3415201

Hossain, I. (2023). The Role of Social Media in Spreading Rumors in Bangladesh during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR). https://www.academia.edu/103302299/The_Role_of_Social_Media_in_Spreading_Rumors_in_Bangladesh_during_COVID_19_Pandemic

Hossain, Z., Hashmi, Y., & Mezbah-ul-Islan, M. (2021). ICT Facilities and Literacy in Rural Non-Government Secondary School Libraries of Bangladesh. School Libraries Worldwide, 66–80. https://doi.org/10.29173/slw8243

Islam, M. N., Zaman, A., & Sarker, S. (2020). Beliefs About COVID-19 of Elderly Residents in Rural Bangladesh. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 32(8), 527–528. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539520964275

Johnson, S. B., Parsons, M., Dorff, T., Moran, M. S., Ward, J. H., Cohen, S. A., Akerley, W., Bauman, J., Hubbard, J., Spratt, D. E., Bylund, C. L., Swire-Thompson, B., Onega, T., Scherer, L. D., Tward, J., & Fagerlin, A. (2022). Cancer Misinformation and Harmful Information on Facebook and Other Social Media: A Brief Report. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 114(7), 1036–1039. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab141

Kožuh, I., & Čakš, P. (2023). Social Media Fact-Checking: The Effects of News Literacy and News Trust on the Intent to Verify Health-Related Information. Healthcare, 11(20), 2796. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11202796

Li, Y.-J., Marga, J. J., Cheung, C. M. K., Shen, X.-L., & Lee, M. (2022). Health Misinformation on Social Media: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Directions. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 14(2), 116–149. https://doi.org/10.17705/1thci.00164

Mohamed, F., & Shoufan, A. (2024). Users’ experience with health-related content on YouTube: an exploratory study. BMC Public Health, 24(1), 86. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-17585-5

Muhammed T, S., & Mathew, S. K. (2022). The disaster of misinformation: a review of research in social media. International Journal of Data Science and Analytics, 13(4), 271–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41060-022-00311-6

Nabity-Grover, T., Cheung, C. M. K., & Thatcher, J. B. (2020). Inside out and outside in: How the COVID-19 pandemic affects self-disclosure on social media. International Journal of Information Management, 55, 102188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102188

Pan, W., Liu, D., & Fang, J. (2021). An Examination of Factors Contributing to the Acceptance of Online Health Misinformation. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.630268

Pathak, R., Spezzano, F., & Pera, M. S. (2023). Understanding the Contribution of Recommendation Algorithms on Misinformation Recommendation and Misinformation Dissemination on Social Networks. ACM Transactions on the Web, 17(4), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1145/3616088

Porter, E., & Wood, T. J. (2021). The global effectiveness of fact-checking: Evidence from simultaneous experiments in Argentina, Nigeria, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(37). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104235118

Sarker, A. R., Zabeen, I., Khanam, M., Akter, R., & Ali, N. (2023). Healthcare-seeking experiences of older citizens in Bangladesh: A qualitative study. PLOS Global Public Health, 3(2), e0001185. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0001185

Savolainen, R. (2022). What drives people to prefer health-related misinformation? The viewpoint of motivated reasoning. Information Research: An International Electronic Journal, 27(2). https://doi.org/10.47989/irpaper927

Sultana, S., & Fussell, S. R. (2021). Dissemination, Situated Fact-checking, and Social Effects of Misinformation among Rural Bangladeshi Villagers During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 5(CSCW2), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1145/3479580

Sundstrom, B., Cartmell, K. B., White, A. A., Well, H., Pierce, J. Y., & Brandt, H. M. (2021). Correcting HPV Vaccination Misinformation Online: Evaluating the HPV Vaccination NOW Social Media Campaign. Vaccines, 9(4), 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040352

Swire-Thompson, B., & Lazer, D. (2020). Public Health and Online Misinformation: Challenges and Recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health, 41(1), 433–451. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094127

Wang, Y., McKee, M., Torbica, A., & Stuckler, D. (2019). Systematic Literature Review on the Spread of Health-related Misinformation on Social Media. Social Science & Medicine, 240, 112552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112552

World Health Organization. (2020). Infodemic management: a key component of the COVID-19 global response – Parer aux infodémies: un élément essentiel de la riposte mondiale à la COVID-19. World Health Organization. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/331775

Publication Information